Among those who abstained on the vote to reject a no-deal Brexit were Work and Pensions Secretary Amber Rudd, Scottish Secretary David Mundell, Justice Secretary David Gauke and Business Secretary Greg Clark.
Corbyn added: "She needs now to show leadership".
Mr Corbyn has renewed his calls for Mrs May to resign as Prime Minister.
But dismissing calls from Tory MPs to embrace a no-deal exit now, Mrs May said her deal remained the best way to honour the 2016 referendum result.
Under a temporary scheme 87% of imports by value would be eligible for zero-tariff access - up from 80% at present.
"The prime minister has run down the clock and the clock has been run out on her", the 69-year-old leader said in the House of Commons.
On Tuesday in yet another "meaningful vote", MPs threw out May's deal by 140 votes.
The government also announced it will not introduce any new checks or controls, or require customs declarations for any goods moving from across the border from Ireland to Northern Ireland if the United Kingdom leaves the European Union without a deal.
Conservative MP John Baron then pushed Mrs May to back a no-deal Brexit, arguing "no deal is better than a bad deal".
The decision to drop all checks to avoid friction at the UK's land border with the European Union will be temporary while longer term solutions are negotiated.
It said backing for the PM's deal has now more than doubled to 40% - though the responses had been given before the Commons voted to take a no-deal Brexit off the table on Wednesday night.
"We take note of the votes in the House of Commons this evening", the spokesman said. She won the vote by 412 to 202.
The North West Cambridgeshire MP said: "Given no-deal Brexit is the Government's default position, will the Prime Minister kindly inform the House she will instruct the Chancellor to make available whatever funds are required to ensure the country is as best prepared as possible in the event we do leave on a no-deal basis".
He said: "'The unilateral statement is a weak Government trying to fool its own backbenchers because the European Union has not even signed up to it".
Earlier in the day, British MPs also rejected another amendment that sought to delay Brexit until May 22 by extending the Article 50 of the EU's Lisbon Treaty.
Leading Tory Remainers and Brexiteers, including Dominic Grieve and Boris Johnson, have suggested the prime minister's deal is now "finished" and other options must be brought forward.
The EU's chief negotiator, Michel Barnier, has said the current impasse "can only be solved in the UK" and MPs must decide what they want rather than what they don't.