It was flying from Kyrgyzstan to Karaj Payam airport in Iran, but reportedly ended up landing at Fath Airport near Tehran.
There were 16 people onboard and only the flight engineer survived, according to Fars news agency, which is considered close to the military.
Iran's state TV says a Boeing 707 Kyrgyz cargo plane has crashed west of Tehran amid severe weather and that there are fears all 10 crew members have been killed.
"It exited the runway during the landing and caught fire after hitting the wall at the end of the runway", the army statement said.
The plane reportedly was carrying a cargo of meat from Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan's capital, to Iran. The army's statement came after some confusion over who owned the plane.
It showed footage of burning wreckage of the plane and a plume of smoke rising from the crash site.
But a source told Fars agency that the plane belonged to the Iranian military's air force.
"We don't have clear information about the details of the crash", said the head of Iran's emergency department, Pir Hossein Koolivand. The air force does operate Boeing 707s.
It was later confirmed it belonged to Iran's air force.
At least seven people have died in a cargo plane crash near the Iranian capital, Tehran, media have reported.