"We gave the recordings, we gave them to Saudi Arabia, we gave them to Washington, to the Germans, to the French, to the English", he said in a televised speech.
The audio appears to have been obtained by the bugging of the Saudi consulate, which is in contravention of the Vienna Convention and therefore illegal under global law.
Riyadh is under enormous worldwide pressure to explain why Khashoggi was murdered inside the Saudi consulate in Turkey's Istanbul in September.
That discovery, made two weeks after the Saudi journalist's demise, reportedly led the authorities to conclude that Khashoggi's dead body was dissolved in acid in one of the rooms at the consul's residence.
Khashoggi's body has not been found, more than a month after he was killed. Yet some of those implicated in the killing are close to the crown prince, including a member of the prince's entourage on foreign trips who was seen at the consulate before Khashoggi's slaying.
Unconfirmed reports of the contents of gruesome tape allege that Khashoggi was grabbed, drugged and dismembered on a tape with a bone saw.
US President Donald Trump, meanwhile, has oscillated between statements backing MBS's version of events and pouring scorn on the official lines coming out of Riyadh.
Khashoggi disappeared after he entered the consulate on October 2 even as his fiancée Hatice Cengiz waited outside the building.
Saudi Arabia initially attempted to cover up the killing by insisting that Khashoggi had left the consulate. "They know for certain who among the 15 is the killer or are the killers", he said.
Samples taken from the drains at the Saudi consulate in Istanbul showed traces of acid, pro-government daily Sabah said, without quoting sources.
Sources have told MEE that Mujeb was described by the Istanbul prosecutor as the "lowest of the low".
Erdogan said the killer, or killers, would be known to the 18 suspects identified by Turkish authorities - including 15 men who arrived from Saudi Arabia shortly before Khashoggi's death.