Central, Eastern and Western Europe have the highest alcohol consumption per person, and the highest rates of heavy consumption among drinkers (50.5 percent, 48 percent, and just over 42 percent, respectively), according to the report.
It turned out that the DALYs, taking into account the life years adjusted for disability (lost due to disability or premature death), for smokers is 170,9 million, and for drinking alcohol - 85 million.
Global estimates suggest that almost one in seven adults (15.2 per cent) smoke tobacco and one in five adults report at least one occasion of heavy alcohol use in the past month.
The same European regions also recorded the highest prevalence of tobacco smoking (Eastern Europe 24.2 per cent, Central Europe 23.7 per cent, and Western Europe 20.9 per cent).
A sample of plain packages used in the United Kingdom
The largest health burden from substance use was attributable to tobacco smoking and the smallest was attributable to illicit drugs. Fewer than one in twenty people were estimated to use cannabis in the past year, and much lower estimates were observed for amphetamines, opioids and cocaine.
It's smoking tobacco and drinking alcohol - and not taking illegal drugs - that pose the greatest risks to people's health, a new global study contends. Hotspots included the United States (U.S.), Canada, and Australasia.
The study was published online May 11 in the journal Addiction. There was no government data on the smoking rate in 2015.
Analyzing 2016 data, the researchers found that only 49 percent of mental health treatment facilities were smoke-free.