The Jane Austen notes will only be released in England and Wales - with Scotland and Northern Ireland having new notes.
The last was the £5 note featuring reformer Elizabeth Fry which was replaced by a Winston Churchill fiver.
A book-shaped copper foil patch contains Austen's initials, and the words "Bank of England" are printed in raised ink, known as intaglio.
That quote caused some controversy when announced, as in its original context, the character who utters the words, Caroline Bingley, is being more than a little disingenuous.
"Our banknotes serve as repositories of the country's collective memory, promoting awareness of the United Kingdom's glorious history and highlighting the contributions of its greatest citizens", Bank of England Governor Mark Carney said. "Austen's novels have a universal appeal and speak as powerfully today as they did when they were first published".
"The new £10 will be printed on polymer, making it safer, stronger and cleaner", he added.
"The new £10 note celebrates Jane Austen's work".
The Bank assessed whether palm oil or coconut oil should be used instead, but concluded that this might not be able to be sourced sustainably and changing production would also involve considerable extra costs to taxpayers.
These include a see-through window behind the Queen's portrait, a quill at the side of window which changes from purple to orange and Winchester Cathedral shown in gold on the front and silver on the back. They also have features that accommodate the blind and partially sighted. It has been used before on Australian and Canadian banknotes.
Beatrix Potter and Barbara Hepworth were both mooted as the new face of the £20 note, but in the event lost out to JMW Turner.
Ritu Vohora, investment director at M&G Investments, said: "Jane Austen lived through the Napoleonic Wars, yet despite all the political upheaval - cash remained king".
It is the first note with a tactile feature to help blind users.