Cushing was suspended 10 games for another violation of the league's PED policy, the NFL announced.
Cushing's suspension begins immediately, although he was already ruled out of Thursday's game against the Cincinnati Bengals (0-1) after sustaining a concussion in last weekend's season-opening 29-7 loss to the Jacksonville Jaguars.
The Pro Bowler was also suspended four games in 2010 for performance-enhancing drug use.
Cushing, who blamed overtraining for his positive test seven years ago, will be able to return to the Texans' active roster following the team's November 27 game against the Baltimore Ravens.
As of Tuesday Cushing was still listed as the team's starting MIKE linebacker, but with his suspension Dylan Cole will likely slide into that role.
Cushing still has two years remaining on his contract following the 2017 season but his deal includes an opt-clause next offseason, according to Spotrac.
Cushing is now out for the Texans after suffering a concussion in Sunday's game.