Grammy-nominated tenor Andrea Bocelli and soprano Maria Luigia Borsi also sang at the gala.
YuMi, manufactured by Swiss technology group ABB, was invited to the stage by Bocelli, who performed the famous aria "La Donna è Mobile" from Verdi's Rigoletto.
YuMi, made by the firm ABB, was taught its movements by the orchestra's regular conductor Colombani. "It showed that a robot could really conduct an orchestra, but only with the excellent work of very talented engineers and a real maestro".
The Lucca orchestra's regular conductor, Andrea Colombini, praised YuMi but said "he lacks sensitivity, most of all he lacks interaction".
ABB's software RobotStudio was also utilized to fine-tune the movements, especially to ensure that they stay in sync with the music.
Add orchestral conductor to the list of jobs in which humans are in danger of replacement by robots.
"One of the biggest barriers in robotics is not the physical hardware [but] the engineering that it takes to teach a robot what to do", said ABB's chief executive, Ulrich Spiesshofer, in comments included in a company-produced YouTube video.
YuMi achieved a very high level of fluidity of gesture, with an incredible softness of touch and expressive nuancing.
The performance was a world first by a robotic conductor and celebrated Italy's "First International Festival of Robotics", which kicked off Friday.
Writing in a blog post ahead of the performance, Colombini described the process as "satisfying, albeit challenging". "The robot uses its arms, but the soul, the spirit, always comes from a human".
While this performance gives an inspiring peek at the future, it is unlikely robots will ever prove capable of combining the scholarship, artistry, technique, interpretation and charisma of a skilled human conductor.