The vice president also said the US would promote peaceful dialogue and defend human rights, "because the dignity and worth of every person is an eternal value of the United States".
South Korea's acting president, Hwang Kyo-ahn, at a meeting with top officials on Thursday, repeatedly called for the military and security ministries to maintain vigilance.
Pyongyang's pursuit of ballistic missiles and nuclear weapons has raised tensions between the regime and Washington, which is determined to resolve the North Korea problem once and for all.
He said Trump's "strength and resolve" had been evident for the world to see in recent weeks, citing the cruise missile strike on a Syrian regime airbase and the dropping of a Massive Ordnance Air Blast bomb on an ISIS location in Afghanistan. "President Trump has made it clear that the patience of the United States and our allies in this region has run out and we want to see change". The visit comes after the DPRK test-fired a ballistic missile, which exploded soon after lift-off, with speculation of another possible nuclear test. Pence said the US and Japan will work with China and continue exerting diplomatic pressure until North Korea ends its nuclear and missile programs.
Asked whether another North Korean nuclear test is imminent, she said, "Some kind of a major provocation like that would draw a pretty significant worldwide response".
President Donald Trump in Washington and Pence at the Demilitarized Zone between North and South Korea have signaled a forceful US stance on North Korea's recent actions. -South Korean installation, which is just outside the 2.5-mile (4.02-kilometer)-wide DMZ. Under rainfall, Pence later stood a few meters from the military demarcation line outside Freedom House, gazing at the North Korean soldiers across the border, and then peered at a deforested stretch of North Korea from a lookout post in the hillside.
The U.S. military said on April 10 that the aircraft carrier strike group Trump was referring to had been ordered to "sail north and report on station in the Western Pacific" after departing Singapore.
Mr Pence's speech on the aircraft carrier followed meetings in Tokyo on Tuesday with Japanese prime minister Shinzo Abe, where he noted that "all options are on the table". But he stressed: "Dialogue for dialogue's sake is meaningless".
The North has said such launches are an act of deterrence against a potential invasion by the USA or South Korea.
Pence's visit, full of Cold War symbolism, came amid increasing tensions and heated rhetoric on the Korean Peninsula.
The rhetoric seems to be blurring the lines between North Korea and economic ties with China, issues that previous USA administrations had kept separate.
Reuters cited a statement from a Japanese government spokesman who said that Pence and Abe agreed that they needed to persuade China to play a larger role in dealing with North Korea.
Yet Abe and Pence affirming the foundation for a peaceful solution represents a shift in tone for the US following the nation's recent airstrike on Syria, use of a massive ordnance air blast bomb in Afghanistan and orders to send the USS Carl Vinson aircraft carrier near the Korean Peninsula.
"The President's decision to launch cruise missiles into Syria at the very airbase that launched a horrific chemical attack, which was the right decision", he said.
Since 2008, photographer Eric Lafforgue ventured to North Korea six times.
He also said the era of over-regulation "is over" and Trump aims to bring in a new era of jobs and growth.